Alloy Artifacts  

Currier-Koeth Manufacturing Company

The Currier-Koeth Manufacturing Company was founded in 1907 in Coudersport, Pennsylvania as a maker of machinery and tools.

[1907 Incorporation Notice for Currier-Koeth]
Fig. 116. 1907 Incorporation Notice for Currier-Koeth. [External Link]

Fig. 116 shows the directory entry for Currier-Koeth, as published on page 43 of the List of Charters of Corporations for Pennsylvania, covering 1907 through 1909.

The text notes that the company was incorporated with capital of $53,000 on November 12, 1907, and that the intended line of business was machinery, castings, tools and novelties.

Speaking of novelties, the company's earliest product was a plier-like combination tool described by patent 677,770, filed by E.D.C. Koeth in 1900 and issued in 1901. The tool consisted of a pair of handles and several sets of interchangeable jaws, and was sold in a wooden box as "Koeth's Kombination Kit".

[1907 Ad for Koeth's Kombination Kit]
Fig. 117. 1907 Ad for Koeth's Kombination Kit.

The scan in Fig. 117 shows an ad for the Koeth's Kombination Kit, as published on page 1413 of the December, 1907 issue of Popular Mechanics. The illustration shows the different blades in the set and the way they install into the handles.

The Kombination Kit was available by late 1907 and remained in production until at least 1913, and was advertised widely during this period.

In later years the company emphasized the interchangeability of the tools, calling it the "K-I-T" for Koeth's Interchangeable Tools.

The "Curko" Brand

By around 1914 the company had begun producing tools for valve grinding under the brand "Curko".

[1915 Notice for Curko Valve Refacer]
Fig. 118. 1915 Notice for Curko Valve Refacer. [External Link]

Fig. 118 shows an illustration of a Curko valve refacing machine, part of a two-page article beginning on page 198 of the January, 1915 edition of the Automobile Trade Journal.

Under the heading "Curko Valve-Treating Tools", the article describes various Curko tools, including a valve lifter, the refacing machine, and a valve grinding set.

Around this time the company began producing other types of tools as well, including adjustable wrenches and hex-drive socket sets. These later tools were also sold under the "Curko" brand.


Socket Sets

[1917 Notice for Currier-Koeth Mfg.]
Fig. 119. 1917 Notice for Currier-Koeth Mfg. [External Link]

Fig. 119 shows a notice for a Currier-Koeth socket set, as published on page 28 of the January 17, 1917 issue of Motor World.

The text describes a small socket wrench set consisting of an ell handle and five sockets from 5/16 to 7/16, and a Crescent-style adjustable wrench available in four sizes.

Illustrations of the tools appeared on the prior page of the source.


Acquistion by Graham Roller Bearing

By late 1916 Currier-Koeth had been acquired by the Graham Roller Bearing Company.

[1916 Notice for Graham Roller Bearing]
Fig. 120. 1916 Notice for Graham Roller Bearing. [External Link]

Fig. 120 shows a notice of the acquisition, as published on page 33 of the November 4, 1916 issue of Michigan Manufacturer and Financial Record.

The text notes that Graham had purchased the Currier-Koeth manufacturing facility in order to expand.

Graham Roller Bearing continued to produce at least some of Currier-Koeth's products, including the valve-grinding tools and socket sets, and continued to use the "Curko" brand in advertisements.

[1919 Ad for Curko Socket Wrenches]
Fig. 121. 1919 Ad for Curko Socket Wrenches. [External Link]

Fig. 121 shows an ad for Curko socket wrenches, as published on page 48 of the January, 1919 edition of American Garage & Auto Dealer.

Graham continued to offer Curko socket sets at least through 1920, but advertisements after that time no longer mention the Curko brand.


Currier-Koeth "Koeth's Kombination Kit"

[Currier-Koeth Koeth's Kombination Kit]
Fig. 122. Currier-Koeth Koeth's Kombination Kit, ca. 1907-1913.

Fig. 122 shows a Currier-Koeth "Koeth's Kombination Kit" in its wooden box. The kit consists of a pair of handles in the lower bay, with six pairs of interchangeable blades in the upper bays.

After the desired blades are installed in the slot in each handle, the handles are held together with the bolt and wingnut visible in the upper right bay.

The functions of the various blades are, from the left, straight shears, alligator wrench (?), curved shears, punch or awl, combination pliers, and end nippers.

[Label for Koeth's Kombination Kit]
Fig. 123. Label for Koeth's Kombination Kit, ca. 1907-1913.

Fig. 123 shows the paper label on the lid of the wooden box, identifying the tools as "Koeth's Kombination Kit".

The text at the bottom notes "Currier-Koeth Manufacturing Co." with "Coudersport, Pa." and "U.S.A." below.

The dimensions of the box are 10.5 inches wide by 5.9 inches deep by 1.7 inches high.


Currier-Koeth 9 Inch End Nippers from "Koeth's Kombination Kit"

[Currier-Koeth 9 Inch End Nippers]
Fig. 124. Currier-Koeth 9 Inch End Nippers from Koeth's Kombination Kit, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1907-1913.

Fig. 124 shows a pair of Currier-Koeth 9 inch end nippers from the "Koeth's Kombination Kit". The handle is stamped "K.K.K. Tool" and "Currier, Koeth Mfg. Co." around the pivot, with "Coudersport, Pa." below.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers.

The overall length is 8.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The pliers are also marked with a "Pat. July 2, 1900" notation, an intended reference to patent 677,770. The patent was actually issued to E.D.C. Koeth on July 2, 1901.

The lower handle has a piece of curved spring steel attached at the midway point, which can be pivoted to provide spring-opened jaws.

[Detail for Currier-Koeth 9 Inch End Nippers]
Fig. 125. Detail for Currier-Koeth 9 Inch End Nippers, ca. 1907-1913.

Fig. 125 shows the lower handle of the Currier-Koeth nippers, illustrating the way the interchangeable jaws fit into a slot in the handle.


Detroit Tool and Forge Company

The Detroit Tool and Forge Company was founded in 1932 and operated as a maker of a tools for industrial applications, including sockets and drive tools, ratcheting wrenches, and specialty tools.

[1932 Notice for Detroit Tool and Forge]
Fig. 126. 1932 Notice for Detroit Tool and Forge.

The screenshot in Fig. 126 shows a snippet of a notice of the company's incorporation, as originally published in the 1932 Volume 90 of Steel.

The text notes the company address as 656 Smith Avenue in Detroit and gives the capital as $10,000. The principal of the company appears to be Kerr Volis.

Online searches for the company found only a few references from the early 1930s, mostly for an air valve product.

However, more references were found from the mid 1930s to 1940s for a similarly named company, Detroit Tool & Manufacturing, which operated at 1660 Beard Avenue in Detroit. One reference listed the latter company as the D.T.M. Corporation.

We have a catalog for the Detroit Tool and Forge Company at the 656 Smith Avenue address, which although undated appears to be from the 1930s. The catalog lists mostly sockets and drive tools with a strong focus on industrial automation, as it includes tools with oval drive tangs of several sizes, as well as products such as an adapter from Morse taper to square drive.

With its location in Detroit, it's probably safe to asssume that the company's main customers would have been auto makers or their numerous suppliers.

"Surface Drive" Sockets

For us the most interesting tools in the catalog were the "surface drive" sockets on pages 2 and 3. These sockets were designed with relieved corners to reduce stress and cracking, and to allow the socket to easily slip onto a nut.

[1930s Catalog Listing for Detroit Tool Surface Drive Sockets]
Fig. 127. 1930s Catalog Listing for Detroit Tool "Surface Drive" Sockets.

The scan in Fig. 127 shows the listing for "surface drive" sockets, as published on page 2 of the 1930s Detroit Tool and Forge catalog.

Note that the sockets on this page are all oval-drive, in sizes 7/16, 9/16, and 5/8. The following page offered similar sockets with square drive broachings.

Sockets used in factory automation applications could easily get orders of magnitude more usage than a socket in a typical service application, and a socket failure would result in costly downtime. Detroit Tool analyzed the cause of early socket failures and engineered its "surface drive" sockets for long life in a demanding environment.

The "surface drive" sockets are noted as having a pending patent, but the patent (if issued) has not been located. But the design of these sockets appears to brilliantly anticipate the Utica "Locrite" patent #3,125,910 and Snap-on "Flank Drive" patent #3,273,430 of three decades later.


The D.T.M. Connection

One of the products listed in the catalog is an SSR-14 7/16 square ratcheting box wrench, as shown in the lower table in Fig. 129 below. This is a somewhat unusual size and style for a ratcheting wrench, but it very closely matches a former "mystery" tool in our collection, allowing us to identify Detroit Tool and Forge as the previously unknown maker.

The mystery tool is marked with a logo showing the letters "DTM" inside a hexagon, which leads us to the hypothesis that Detroit Tool and Forge changed its name to (or was otherwise succeeded by) Detroit Tool & Manufacturing, aka D.T.M. Corporation.

We believe that the close match between the catalog scan and the actual tool in Fig. 130 provides strong evidence for Detroit Tool and Forge as the maker, and for the D.T.M. Corporation as the business successor.

Later Operations

Currently we don't have any information on the later operations of the D.T.M. Corporation. However, searches for "surface drive" sockets have turned up some references in the mid 1950s to the Apex Machine & Tool Company, a major player in factory automation. This offers at least a hint that the D.T.M. Corporation might have been acquired by Apex.


Tool Identification

Currently all of our tool examples are marked with the DTM-Hex logo, indicating later production after the company changed its name. However, it's reasonable to think that Detroit Tool and Forge might have used a similar "DTF" logo in its earlier years.

DTM-Hex Logo

[DTM-Hex Logo from SSR14 Wrench]
Fig. 128. DTM-Hex Logo from SSR14 Wrench.

Tools made by the D.T.M. Corporation can be identified by a stamped logo with "DTM" in a hexagonal outline, which we refer to as the DTM-Hex logo in the text.

Fig. 128 shows a close-up of the DTM-Hex logo stamped on the SSR14 wrench shown in a later figure.

The DTM-Hex logo has not been found in any published references and is currently known only from stamped markings on tools.


Catalog Coverage

Currently we have only one catalog for Detroit Tool and Forge.

Catalog Year Format Notes
N/A Mid 1930s Full No copyright, undated. 11 pages plus 4 pages of prices.
Company address at 656 Smith Avenue in Detroit.
Available for Download [External Link] from International Tool Catalog Library.
Sockets and drive tools in both oval and square drive of several sizes.
Lists "Surface Drive" sockets with rounded corners to prevent cracking.

Selected Tools


Detroit Tool and Forge SSR14 7/16 Square Ratcheting Box Wrench

[1930s Catalog Listing for Detroit Tool Ratcheting Wrenches]
Fig. 129. 1930s Catalog Listing for Detroit Tool Ratcheting Wrenches.

The scan in Fig. 129 shows a listing for ratcheting box wrenches, as published on page 1 of a Detroit Tool and Forge catalog from the 1930s.

As the listing shows, the wrenches were available in an SR-xx series with hexagonal openings and an SSR-xx series with square openings. With a suitable male-to-male adapter, the latter series could operate as a light-duty ratchet for sockets.

The next figure below shows a ratcheting wrench with an SSR14 model number and 7/16 square opening, matching the specifications listed in the lower table at the left, and closely matching the illustration as well.

The matching appearance, model number, and specifications allow us to identify Detroit Tool and Forge as the maker of the SSR14 wrench.


[Detroit Tool SSR14 7/16 Square Ratcheting Box Wrench]
Fig. 130. Detroit Tool and Forge SSR14 7/16 Square Ratcheting Box Wrench, with Insets for Edge View and Marking Detail, ca. Mid 1930s to 1940s.

Fig. 130 shows a Detroit Tool and Forge SSR14 7/16 square ratcheting box wrench, stamped with a "DTM-Hex" logo on the back side, as seen in the lower inset.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

Several other tools with this same "DTM-Hex" marking have been found and will be added as time permits.


DTM ST-10001 3/8-Drive Specialty Socket

[DTM ST-10001 3/8-Drive Specialty Socket]
Fig. 131. DTM ST-10001 3/8-Drive Specialty Socket, with Insets for Top View and Marking Detail, ca. Mid 1930s to 1940s.

Fig. 131 shows a DTM 3/8-drive ST-10001 specialty socket, stamped with the "DTM-Hex" logo on the base.

The overall height is 2.0 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The socket has a long hollow barrel with two projecting tabs, possibly for servicing a slotted nut for a carburetor jet.

Currently we do not have a catalog reference for this tool.


E.T. Company

The E.T. Company was a maker of pliers operating in Norwalk, Connecticut. Currently the company is known only for the Woodworth patent chain repair pliers shown in the figure below, but we hope to locate other examples of their production.

E.T. Company Woodworth Patent Chain Repair Pliers

[E.T. Company Woodworth Patent Chain Repair Pliers]
Fig. 132. E.T. Company Woodworth Patent Chain Repair Pliers, with Inset for Back Side Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 132 shows a pair of E.T. Company chain repair pliers of the Woodworth patent design. The pliers are stamped "E.T. Co. Norwalk CT" with a "Pat. May 4'20" patent date, with "Woodworth" and "Lewiston, ME." stamped on the back side.

The overall length is 7.1 inches, and the finish is polished steel with a thin nickel plating.

The patent date corresponds to patent 1,338,804, filed by D.C. Woodworth in 1919 and issued in 1920.

Another example of the Woodworth patent pliers can be seen as the Stevens Walden T-615 Chain Repair Pliers.


Eagle Claw Wrench Company

The Eagle Claw Wrench Company is best known for a series of plier-wrench tools of the same name. The company was founded in 1912 and initially operated in Chicago, Illinois.

An entry for the company on page 106 [External Link] of a 1912 report from the Secretary of State of Illinois lists the incorporation date as January 19, 1912 and the capital as $25,000.

The company's plier-wrench tool was covered by patent 1,016,296, filed by J. Schlehr in 1910 and issued in 1912. The patent refers to the tool as a "bolt-holder", and describes a fairly conventional slip-joint plier mechanism but with the jaws arranged to give considerable clamping leverage.

An announcement on page 1319 [External Link] of the December 4, 1913 issue of Iron Age noted that the company had moved its headquarters from 36 West Randolph Street in Chicago to Rockford, Illinois. The company seems to have maintained an office in Chicago though, as some later ads give the Chicago address.

[1914 Advertisement for Eagle Claw Wrenches]
Fig. 133. 1914 Advertisement for Eagle Claw Wrenches. [External Link]

Fig. 133 shows an ad illustrating the various models and sizes of the tools, as published in the January 1914 issue of the Plumbers, Gas and Steam Fitters' Journal.

The text lists the company address as 36 West Randolph Street in Chicago.


Mechanics Tool Company

By 1919 the Eagle Claw Wrench Company had changed its name to (or been acquired by) the Mechanics Tool Company of Rockford, Illlinois, with its address at 23rd Avenue and 7th Street. A notice for the Eagle Claw Wrench on page page 28 [External Link] of the December, 1919 issue of the Railway Journal notes the maker as the Mechanics Tool Company.

Later production of the tool is known to have been marked with "Mechanics Tool Co." or with "M. T. Co." in a triangle logo.

A few notices for the Eagle Claw Wrench have been found from the early 1920s, with Jessop & Thompson of Chicago as the distributor.

Currently we don't have any further information on the company, but the tool (and company) did merit a mention in Kenneth Cope's book American Wrench Makers, 1830-1930 (Second Edition), which shows an advertisement for several sizes of the plier-wrenches.


Trademarks

[1913 Trademark Application for Eagle Claw Wrenches]
Fig. 134. 1913 Trademark Application for Eagle Claw Wrenches. [External Link]

Fig. 134 shows a trademark application for "Eagle Claw Wrench", as published on page 1041 of the November 25, 1913 issue of Official Gazette of the USPTO.

The application was filed by the company on September 2, 1913 and claimed a first use date of September 1, 1912. The trademark was registered as #95,078 on February 3, 1914.

Eagle Claw Wrench: Registered Trademarks
Text Mark or Logo Reg. No. First Use Date Filed Date Issued Notes
EAGLE CLAW   07/01/1910 07/25/1912   For wrenches
Serial 64,915. Published November 26, 1912.
(Not known to have been issued.)
EAGLE CLAW WRENCH [design] 95,078 09/01/1912 09/02/1913 02/03/1914 For wrenches
Serial 72,618. Published November 25, 1913.

Eagle Claw 7 Inch Plier-Wrench

[Eagle Claw 7 Inch Plier-Wrench]
Fig. 135. Eagle Claw 7 Inch Plier-Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1912-1913.

Fig. 135 shows an Eagle Claw 7 inch plier-wrench, stamped "Eagle Claw Wrench Co." and "Chicago, U.S.A." on the handle, with a "Pat'd. Feb. 6, 1912" patent date below.

The overall length is 7.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The "Chicago" marking suggests an early production date of 1912-1913, before the move to Rockford.

The patent date corresponds to patent 1,016,296, filed by J. Schlehr in 1910 and issued in 1912. The patent refers to the tool as a "bolt-holder", and describes a fairly conventional slip-joint plier mechanism but with the jaws arranged to give considerable clamping leverage.


Eagle Claw 10 Inch Wrench Pliers

[Eagle Claw 10 Inch Wrench Pliers]
Fig. 136. Eagle Claw 10 Inch Wrench Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1919 to Early 1920s.

Fig. 136 shows a pair of Eagle Claw 10 inch wrench pliers, stamped on the back with "...ANICS TOOL CO." and "EAGLE CLAW WRENCH" with "ROCKFORD, ILL. U.S.A." below.

The pliers are also stamped with a "PAT. FEB. 6, 19.." patent date, with the year (1912) partially obscured by the nut.

The overall length is 10.6 inches retracted and 11.6 inches fully extended. The finish is plain steel.

The marking for the Mechanics Tool Company indicates production in 1919 or later.

The patent date corresponds to patent 1,016,296, filed by J. Schlehr in 1910 and issued in 1912. The patent refers to the tool as a "bolt-holder", and describes a fairly conventional slip-joint plier mechanism but with the jaws arranged to give considerable clamping leverage.


Eastern Machine Screw Corporation

The Eastern Machine Screw Corporation operated in New Haven, Connecticut and produced a well designed "H & G" socket set during the 1920s.

[1922 Advertisement for H & G Socket Set]
Fig. 137. 1922 Advertisement for H & G Socket Set.

The scan in Fig. 137 shows an advertisement illustrating the H & G socket set, as published on page 241 [External Link] of the May, 1922 issue of the Automobile Trade Journal. The ad lists the company address as 11-12 Barclay Street in New Haven.

The H & G socket sets were one of the few examples of sockets using hexagonal male drive tangs, a design previously explored by the short-lived Edgar C. Guthard Company with their Billmont "Master Wrench" Sets.

We have an example of an H & G socket set and will prepare it for display.


Efficiency Device Corporation

The Efficiency Device Corporation was the maker of lathe dogs and "Stix-On" self-adjusting wrenches, both based on the 1918 Vivarttas patent 1,276,596.

[1919 Ad for Efficiency Device Lathe Dogs]
Fig. 138. 1919 Ad for Efficiency Device Lathe Dogs. [External Link]

Fig. 138 shows an ad for Efficiency Device lathe dogs, as published on page 347 of the December 25, 1919 issue of the The Iron Age.

By April of 1921 the company was offering a "Stix-On" wrench based on the same principle as the lathe dogs.

[1922 Notice for Efficiency Device Stix-On Wrench]
Fig. 139A. 1922 Notice for Efficiency Device Stix-On Wrench. [External Link]

Fig. 139A shows a notice for a "Stix-On" self-adjusting wrench, as published on page 90 of the May 1, 1922 issue of the Automobile Trade Journal.


Trademarks

Efficiency Device Corporation: Registered Trademarks
Text Mark or Logo Reg. No. First Use Date Filed Date Issued Notes
Stix-On 158,340 04/01/1921 09/27/1921 08/29/1922 Self-adjusting wrench

Stix-On No. 1 Self-Adjusting Wrench

[Stix-On No. 1 Self-Adjusting Wrench]
Fig. 139B. Stix-On No. 1 Self-Adjusting Wrench, with Insets for Bottom View and Marking Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 139B shows a Stix-On No. 1 wrench, stamped with "Stix-On Wrench" and "Trademark" on the front.

The back side is stamped with "Efficiency Device Corp." and "Manufacturers New York, N.Y." at one end, with "Patented Aug. 20 '18" and "Other Pat. Pending" on the other end. (The markings have been rotated for readability.)

The overall length is 5.6 inches closed and 6.8 inches fully extended, and the finish is plain steel.

The wrench handle is constructed of folded sheet metal, as illustrated in the top inset.

The patent date refers to patent 1,276,596, filed by W.O. Vivarttas in 1916 and issued on the stated date. The patent actually describes a lathe dog device for gripping a round object, but the wrench version operates on a similar principle. The pending patent is not known.

The wrench is normally fitted with a spring to keep the jaw closed, but our example had already lost its spring when acquired.


Eklind Tool Company

Eklind Tool and Manufacturing was founded in Chicago in 1923 by Henning and Ruth Eklind. The company initially operated as a tool and die maker, and as a contract manufacturer.

By 1935 the company was offering a milling machine head based on patent #1,991,500, issued to H.A. Eklind on February 19, 1935.

In 1946 the company introduced a product for the automotive aftermarket, a brake signal light to provide a warning if the emergency brake had not been fully released. The signal light was based on design patent D143,648, issued to H.A. Eklind et al in 1946.

The Hex Uni-Key

In 1948 the company began offering the "Uni-Key", a set of hex drivers bonded in a die-cast ring.

The use of screws with an internal hexagonal opening had been pioneered by the Allen Manufacturing Company, initially as a safer replacement for set screws on rotating machinery. In the post-war era socket-head set screws and cap screws were becoming more common, and tools such as the Uni-Key provided a way to organize the hex drivers needed for such screws.

The packaging for the early Uni-Key product included a "Patent Applied For" notation, but the patent (if issued) is not known.

Folding Hex Driver Sets

By 1955 the company was offering hex drivers in a fold-up set, a type of tool that was gaining popularity after being introduced by the H.D. Hunter "Smitty" folding hex drivers.

Hex drivers went on to become the major product for Eklind Tool.

Continuing Operations

By 1983 Eklind Tool and Manufacturing had simplified its name to the Eklind Tool Company.

The company continues in business today and additional information can be found at the Eklind [External Link] web site.


Eklind M17 Metric Folding Hex Driver Set

[Eklind M17 Metric Hex Driver Set]
Fig. 140. Eklind M17 Metric Hex Driver Set, with Insets for Bottom and Top Views, ca. 1983+.

Fig. 140 shows an Eklind M17 metric hex driver set, stamped "Eklind Tool Company" and "Chicago, Ill. Made in U.S.A." on the top.

The overall length is 3.6 inches, and the finish is polished nickel.

The seven hex drivers in the set have sizes 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, and 6mm.


Elgin Tool & Socket Company

The Elgin Tool & Socket Company was founded in 1895 in Elgin, Illinois and was best known as the original maker of the "Elgin" adjustable alligator wrench.

[1895 Notice for Elgin Tool & Socket]
Fig. 141. 1895 Notice for Elgin Tool & Socket. [External Link]

Fig. 141 shows a notice of the formation of Elgin Tool & Socket, as published on page 20 of the January 31, 1895 issue of the Chicago Journal of Commerce.

The text notes the incorporators as Harrison P. Nichols, Frederick D. Woodruff, and James M. Stimpson.

In 1899 production of the Elgin wrench was assumed by the Star Manufacturing Company.


Elgin Adjustable Alligator Wrench

[Elgin Adjustable Alligator Wrench]
Fig. 142. Elgin Adjustable Alligator Wrench, ca. Late 1890s to Early 1900s.

Fig. 142 shows an Elgin adjustable alligator wrench, stamped "The Elgin" and "Pat. June 8, '97" on the handle.

The overall length is 6.9 inches, and the finish is polished nickel, with some losses due to rust.

The patent date refers to patent 584,019, filed by H.A. Smith in 1896 and issued on the noted date.


Enderes Tools

Enderes Logo
Fig. 143. Enderes Logo from 1918 Trademark

Enderes Tools was founded in 1896 in Littleport, Iowa by Ernst Enderes as a maker of nippers, pliers, and chisels. The company's earliest tools were 14 inch nippers, staple-pulling pliers, and cold chisels.


The Move to Albert Lea

In 1910 the company merged with the Albert Lea Machinery Company of Albert Lea, Minnesota, but the move to Minnesota was apparently delayed by some years.

[1916 Notice of Move to Albert Lea, Minnesota]
Fig. 144. 1916 Notice of Move to Albert Lea, Minnesota. [External Link]

Fig. 144 shows a notice of the move to Albert Lea, as published on page 806 of the October 5, 1916 issue of The Iron Age.


Later Operations

The company continues in business today as a maker of chisels, punches, mason's tools, farrier's tools, and other tools. Interested readers can find more information at the EnderesTools [External Link] web site.


Patents

Enderes Tools: Issued and Licensed Patents
Patent No.InventorFiledIssuedNotes and Examples
796,305 E. Enderes01/16/190508/01/1905 Wrench
983,271 E. Enderes07/21/190902/07/1911 Pipe Wrench
1,393,399 J.A. Schlehr10/13/191910/11/1921 Pliers
Enderes 6 Inch Combination Pliers

Trademarks

Enderes Tools: Registered Trademarks
Text Mark or Logo Reg. No. First Use Date Filed Date Issued Notes
Enderes Logo 121,609 05/09/1917 10/27/1917 05/14/1918 Used for pliers, chisels, punches, knives.
Enderes [logo] 368,228 09/01/1930 05/26/1938 06/13/1939 Used for pliers, chisels, punches, other tools.
Serial 406,849. Published October 4, 1938.
ENDERES 890,435   09/12/1969 05/05/1970
Serial 337,754. Published February 17, 1970.
Renewed April 24, 1990.
ENDERES 1,066,074   03/24/1976 05/24/1977
Serial 81,257. Published March 1, 1977.
ENDERES 1,068,409   05/20/1976 06/28/1977
Serial 82,217. Published April 5, 1977.
Enderes Tools [logo] 1,656,016 01/01/1969 04/13/1990 09/10/1991 "Enderes Tools" in slanted font
Used for screwdrivers, punches, chisels, pry bars, other tools.
Serial 74048783. Published June 18, 1991.
[hand logo] 2,679,906 12/01/1998 04/16/2001 01/28/2003 Hand grasping hex logo.
Used for screwdrivers, punches, chisels, pry bars, other tools.
Serial 76-241,762. Published May 5, 2002.

Selected Tools


Enderes 6 Inch Combination Pliers

[Enderes 6 Inch Combination Pliers]
Fig. 145. Enderes 6 Inch Combination Pliers, with Insets for Back Side, Edge View, and Marking Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 145 shows a pair of Enderes 6 inch combination pliers, stamped with the Enderes logo in the front, with "Pat-Jan-11-21" on the back side.

The overall length is 6.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of nickel plating.

The top inset shows an edge view of the pliers, illustrating the wedge-shaped nose.

These pliers are described by patent 1,393,399, issued to J.A. Schlehr on October 11, 1921.

Note that the stamped patent date is incorrect, although we've seen other examples of Enderes pliers with the correct date.


Erie Tool Works

The Erie Tool Works operated in Erie, Pennsylvania as a maker of pipe wrenches, adjustable wrenches, vises, and other tools. Although we haven't found the exact date, the company appears to have been in business by 1905, and was incorporated in 1907.

[1907 Notice of Incorporation for Erie Tool Works]
Fig. 146. 1907 Notice of Incorporation for Erie Tool Works. [External Link]

Fig. 146 shows a notice of incorporation for Erie Tool Works, as published on page 204 of the February 9, 1907 issue of The Industrial World.

The text lists the capital stock as $30,000 and the treasurer as Frank W. Bacon.

[1907 Notice of Charter for Erie Tool Works]
Fig. 147. 1907 Notice of Charter for Erie Tool Works. [External Link]

Fig. 147 shows a notice of the corporate charter for Erie Tool Works, as published on page 59 of the 1907 List of Charters of Corporations for Pennsylvania.

The text notes that the company was incorporated on January 31, 1907.

Pipe Vises

Pipe vises appears to have been one of the company's first products.

[1905 Advertisement for Erie Tool Works Pipe Vise]
Fig. 148. 1905 Advertisement for Erie Tool Works Pipe Vise. [External Link]

Fig. 148 shows an ad for the company's malleable iron pipe vise, as published on page 8 of the August 26, 1905 issue of Domestic Engineering.

[1915 Notice for Erie Tool Works Catalog]
Fig. 149. 1915 Notice for Erie Tool Works Catalog. [External Link]

Fig. 149 shows a notice for catalog No. 7 from Erie Tool Works, as published on page 986 of the April 29, 1915 issue of The Iron Age.

[1921 Advertisement for Erie Tool Works]
Fig. 150. 1921 Advertisement for Erie Tool Works.

The scan in Fig. 150 shows an ad for Erie Tool, as published on page 58 [External Link] of the August, 1921 issue of American Exporter.

The illustration shows tools including pipe vises, Stillson pipe wrenches, and pipe cutters.

A condensed catalog from 1932 shows the company's products as pipe vises, pipe threading dies, "Pipemaster" and Stillson-pattern pipe wrenches, and pipe cutters in Saunders and Barnes patterns.


Patents

Erie Tool Works: Issued and Licensed Patents
Patent No.InventorFiledIssuedNotes and Examples
1,617,364 E.W. Bacon04/22/192602/15/1927 Pipe Vise

Trademarks

On April 19, 1954 Erie Tool Works filed a trademark application for "PIPEMASTER" for use with pipe wrenches, with the first use date claimed as January 27, 1932. The application was published on March 8, 1955 with serial 664,743 and issued as trademark #606,374 on May 24, 1955.

On June 13, 1955 the company filed another application for "PIPEMASTER" for use with pipe cutters and pipe vises, with the same first use date as the previous application. This second application was published on December 6, 1955 with serial 689,371 and issued as trademark #622,149 on February 28, 1956.


Erie Tool Works No. 10 Automatic Pipe Wrench

[Erie Tool Works No. 10 Automatic Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 151. Erie Tool Works No. 10 Automatic Pipe Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Back Side Detail.

Fig. 151 shows an Erie Tool Works No. 10 automatic pipe wrench, marked with "Erie Tool Works" and "Erie, PA U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Auto No 10" forged into the back side.

The overall length is 10.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


J.H. Faw "Fawsco" Company

The J.H. Faw Company was a maker of automotive tools and accessories operating in New York City from around 1915 until about 1930. The company sold products under the "Fawsco" brand and is believed to have been founded by Julian H. Faw, an inventor with several tool patents.

[1922 Advertisement for Fawsco Wrenches]
Fig. 152. 1922 Advertisement for Fawsco Wrenches. [External Link]

Fig. 152 shows an ad for Fawsco wrenches, as published on page 64 of the August, 1922 edition of Automobile Dealer and Repairer.

The text notes the company address as 27 Warren Street in New York.

The illustration shows a No. 56 wrench set for Dodge service, and a No. 47 wrench set for Buick service..


Fawsco 1085 5/8 Offset Socket Wrench

[Fawsco 1085 5/8 Offset Socket Wrench]
Fig. 152B. Fawsco 1085 5/8 Offset Socket Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail.

Fig. 152B shows a Fawsco 1085 5/8 offset socket wrench, stamped "Made in U.S.A." with the model and fractional size.

The overall length is 10.2 inches. The finish is plain steel with some of the original black paint.

The socket size and distinctive offset in the shank suggest that this wrench was probably designed for servicing the infamous fourth connecting rod of the Model T Ford.


Flexible Carbon Scraper Company

The Flexible Carbon Scraper Company was established in Los Angleles around 1916 as a maker of carbon scrapers.

[1916 Notice for Flexible Carbon Scraper Co.]
Fig. 153A. 1916 Notice for Flexible Carbon Scraper Company. [External Link]

Fig. 153A shows a notice for the Flexible Carbon Scraper Company, as published on page 172 of the October, 1916 issue of the Automobile Trade Journal.

The text lists the address as 717 South Olive Street in Los Angeles.

A slightly later notice on page 90 of the December 16, 1916 issue of Hardware Age gives the company's address as 2011½ South Vermont Avenue in Los Angeles.

The company's products were based on patent 1,177,333, filed by Orland H. Ihrig in 1915 and issued on March 28, 1916.

It seems likely that the company was founded and operated by the inventor, but we haven't found any documents establishing a formal connection. The company may have operated as a sole proprietorship without becoming incorporated.

By 1919 listings in trade publications show the company at 1421 West Washington Street in Los Angeles.

[1920 Ad for Flexible Carbon Scraper Co.]
Fig. 153B. 1920 Ad for Flexible Carbon Scraper Company. [External Link]

Fig. 153B shows an ad for the Flexible Carbon Scraper Company, as published on page 78 of the August, 1920 issue of the Accessory and Garage Journal.

The company had some success at getting its products into distribution; in particular, the 1923 Beckley-Ralston catalog lists flexible carbon scrapers.

By 1925 the company had moved again, but remained in Los Angeles. An ad on page 55 of the July 15, 1925 issue of Motor West gives the company address as 1007 North Main Street.

References to the company at the 1007 North Main address have been found from as late as 1929.


Contract Manufacturing for Plomb Tool

In 1929 reports in the trade press indicate that the Plomb Tool Company had started offering flexible carbon scrapers. The 1929 Plomb catalog shows a K37 scraper that closely resembles the product from the Flexible Carbon Scraper Company, strongly suggesting that the tools were being provided as contract manufacturing.

Acquisition by Wrae Durston

References to the Flexible Carbon Scraper Company in the trade press disappear after the early 1930s. In seeking to determine the fate of the company, we found a source claiming that the Flexible Carbon Scraper Company was founded by Wrae Durston in 1932 and operated in Pasadena, California. Given the extensive prior history of the company established above, this source is obviously not completely correct, but does suggest that a change of ownership probably occurred in 1932.

Plomb continued to offer flexible carbon scrapers throughout the 1930s, and by 1940 the New Britain Machine catalog was also listing the scrapers. This suggests that under the new ownership the company was primarily focussed on contract manufacturing, so that there was no longer a need for advertisements or notices in the trade press.

The Acquisition of Vim Tool

In 1944 the Flexible Carbon Scraper Company acquired the Vim Tool Company, a maker of automotive tools founded in 1927 and operating in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The 1944 date was found on the web site of the current VIM Tool, but there is some evidence that the acquisition may have occurred by September 1, 1943, which was the first use date claimed on the much later application for trademark #2,908,054.

The Formation of Durston Manufacturing

Some time later the Flexible Carbon Scraper Company was renamed to Durston Manufacturing. The current VIM Tool web site places the name change in 1946; however, the earliest reference to Durston Manufacturing we've found in the trade press is from 1951.

From the mid 1940s onward Durston Manufacturing used the "Vim" brand for a line of automotive service tools and accessories.

By 1959 Durston Manufacturing had outgrown its facility in Pasadena and moved to 1395 Palomares Avenue in La Verne, California.

Continuing Operations

Durston Manufacturing remains in business today and continues to use the VIM brand for a line of automotive specialty tools. More information can be found at the VIM Tools [External Link] web site.

Trademarks

On August 13, 1946 Wrae M. Durston filed a trademark application for "Vim", which was later amended on March 5, 1948. The application was published with serial #507,302 on July 26, 1949 and issued as trademark #517,326.

The first use date with this application shows that Wrae Durston knew that Vim was in operation by January 1, 1928.

Durston Manufacturing: Registered Trademarks
Text Mark or Logo Reg. No. First Use Date Filed Date Issued Notes
Vim 517,326 01/01/1928 03/05/1948 11/08/1949 Filed by Wrae M. Durston.
Serial 507,302. Published July 26, 1949.
VIM Tools logo 2,908,054 09/01/1943 11/21/2003 12/07/2004 "VIM Tools" logo.
Filed by Durston Manufacturing.

H. Foot & Company

H. Foot & Company was an early hardware dealer in Springfield, Massachusetts, established in 1831 by Homer Foot and George Dwight. The company was a major importer and dealer in hardware, iron, and steel.

In 1901 the company was incorporated with $40,000 in capital, and a notice of the incorporation can be found on page 52 [External Link] of the March 21, 1901 issue of The Iron Age. The text of the notice provides additional background information on the company.

Merrick Patent Wrenches

By the mid 1830s H. Foot & Company was the maker of screw-adjusting wrenches based on the 1835 Merrick patent 9,030X, which are believed to have been the first screw-adjusting wrenches made in America.

[1836 Notice for Merrick Patent Wrench]
Fig. 154. 1836 Notice for Merrick Patent Wrench.

The scan in Fig. 154 shows a commentary on the 1835 wrench patent issued to Solyman Merrick, as published on page 205 [External Link] of the March, 1936 edition (Volume XVII, No. 3) of the Journal of the Franklin Institute.

The text notes "N. Foot & Co."[SIC] as the maker of the wrench, but this should be "H. Foot & Co." based on known examples of the wrench.

H. Foot & Company likely began producing the Merrick patent wrenches in 1835, as examples were available to the author of the above commentary by early 1836.

The Coes brothers in Worcester Massachusetts were also familiar with the wrenches, as Loring Coes refers to a drawing of the Merrick wrench in his 1841 patent 2,054 for screw-wrenches.

Wrenches based on the 1835 Merrick patent were also produced by S.C. Bemis & Company, who later formed Bemis & Call.

H. Foot & Company is also known to have produced wrenches using the later 1848 Merrick patent 5,707.


Patents

H. Foot & Company is known to have made screw-adjusting wrenches based on the Merrick 1835 and 1848 patents, and Homer Foot was one of the witnesses for the 1948 patent.

H. Foot & Company: Issued and Licensed Patents
Patent No.InventorFiledIssuedNotes and Examples
9,030X S. Merrick08/17/183508/17/1835 Improvement in Screw Wrench
5,707 S. Merrick08/15/184808/15/1848 Screw-Wrench
Witnessed by Homer Foot.

H. Foot & Company 12 Inch Merrick Patent Screw-Adjusting Wrench

[H. Foot & Company 12 Inch Merrick Patent Screw-Adjusting Wrench]
Fig. 155. H. Foot & Company 12 Inch Merrick Patent Screw-Adjusting Wrench, with Insets for Side View, Construction, and Marking Detail, ca. Late 1830s to 1840s?

Fig. 155 shows a rare early H. Foot 12 inch Merrick patent screw-adjusting wrench, stamped with "H. FOOT [& CO.] SPRINGFIELD MASS" and "PATENT" on the back side of the fixed jaw, as seen in the middle inset.

The overall length is 12.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lower inset shows a close-up of the ferrule construction, with a dovetail tab to keep the band closed.

The adjustment mechanism consists of an octagonal nut moving on a threaded shaft, with the moveable jaw attached by means of a collar fitted into a wide groove at the top of the nut.

The wrench closely resembles the illustration in the 1835 patent.


Fuller Tool Company

The Fuller Tool Company was founded in May of 1937 by Bernard Fuller in Whitestone, New York, a section of Queens. (The founding date is based on the first use date in a later trademark filing.) The company's early products included screwdrivers and nut drivers.

The company was incorporated on July 26, 1946.

By the 1950s the company had started importing tools, and in 1961 Fuller Tool began using the Kyoto Tool Company (KTC) of Japan as a contract manufacturer of Fuller brand tools. Production by KTC included adjustable wrenches, open-end wrenches, and combination wrenches.


Acquisition of Award Tool Company

In 1965 Fuller Tool acquired the Award Tool Company of Flushing, New York. Award Tool appears to have been an importer and reseller of tools, similar to the operations of Fuller Tool by that time.

Our information on the Award Tool Company comes from a small notice regarding Martin H. Rieger, the founder of Award Tool.

[1969 Notice for Award Tool]
Fig. 156. 1969 Notice for Award Tool.

Fig. 156 shows a notice indirectly mentioning the Award Tool Company, as published on page 28 of the June 1, 1969 issue of Hardware Age.

The text notes that Martin H. Rieger had become president of Steelcraft Tools, having previously been the executive vice president of the Award Tool Company.

The notice provides additional background information that Award Tool had been founded by Rieger in 1963, and that Award had been a subsidiary of the Fuller Tool Company since 1965.

As a side note, the Steelcraft Tool Company was later acquired by the Daido Corporation, a Japanese company best known for its "Truecraft" tools.

Award Tool filed a trademark application for "AWARD" on April 16, 1964, with the first use date noted as April 1, 1964 and serial #191,242. The application was published on October 20, 1964, and the company received trademark #782,779 on January 5, 1965. The applicable goods were listed as screwdrivers, pliers, and wrenches.


Later Operations

In the 1990s Fuller Tool moved its operations to Montreal, Canada, and in 1995 Fuller was acquired by Johnson Level, a Canadian company.


Trademarks

Fuller Tool Company: Registered Trademarks
Text Mark or Logo Reg. No. First Use Date Filed Date Issued Notes
TOOL-A-MAT 684,051 06/01/1958 10/13/1958 08/25/1959 Dispensing stand for tools.
Serial 60,503. Published June 9, 1959.
FULLER 750,087 01/01/1940 08/26/1961 05/28/1963 Pliers, screwdrivers, wrenches, and hammers.
Filed by Fuller Tool Co. Inc., 152-35 10th Avenue, Whitestone, New York
Published March 12, 1963.
FULLER 754,049 05/01/1937 02/23/1962 08/06/1963 Mechanic's hand tools, e.g. pliers, screwdrivers, wrenches
Published February 5, 1963.
Renewed June 8, 2013.
AWARD 782,779 04/01/1964 04/16/1964 01/05/1965 Screwdrivers, pliers, and wrenches
Filed by Award Tool Company, later acquired by Fuller.
Serial 191,242. Published February 5, 1963.
LIFELONG 845,866  02/01/1967 03/12/1968
Serial 263,758. Published December 26, 1967.
FULLER [design] 907,758 07/01/196412/30/1968 02/16/1971 Grinding wheels
Published January 13, 1970.

Fuller 5/8 Combination Wrench

The next two figures show examples of KTC's production for Fuller Tool. KTC's production for Fuller goes back to the early 1960s, and based on KTC's reputation we would expect these to be high quality tools.

[Fuller 5/8 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 157. Fuller 5/8 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Edge View and Back Side Detail, ca. 1970s to 1980s.

Fig. 157 shows a Fuller 5/8 combination wrench with raised panels, stamped with "Fuller" and the fractional size on the front panel, with "Forged Alloy" and "Japan" plus the KTC-Oval logo on the back panel. The back side of the shank also has a forged-in "F6" code visible at the left.

The overall length is 7.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces and ends.


Fuller 3/4 Combination Wrench

[Fuller 3/4 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 158. Fuller 3/4 Combination Wrench, with Insets for Edge View and Back Side Detail, ca. 1970s to 1980s.

Fig. 158 shows a Fuller 3/4 combination wrench with raised panels, stamped with "Fuller" and the fractional size on the front panel, with "Chrome Molybdenum" and "Japan" plus the KTC-Oval logo on the back panel. The back side of the shank also has a forged-in "U4" code visible at the left.

The overall length is 9.5 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces and ends.


Gellman Manufacturing Company

Gellman Manufacturing of Rock Island, Illinois, also known earlier as the Gellman Wrench Corporation, was the maker of a distinctive "Polly" sliding-jaw adjustable wrench. This wrench was based on patent 1,451,906, filed by I.C. Gellman in 1921 and issued in 1923. (Gellman also received patent 1,451,873 on the same date, for an adjustable socket wrench.)

Gellman Wrench filed a trademark application for "Polly" in a cute design that made the wrench look like a parrot. The application was filed on January 22, 1923 and published as serial #174,896 on April 17, 1923, with the first use date claimed as November 1, 1922.

The trademark (if issued) is not yet known.


Gellman "Polly" No. 91 Adjustable Wrench

[Gellman Polly No. 91 Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 159. Gellman "Polly" No. 91 Adjustable Wrench, with Inset for Back Side Detail, ca. Mid 1920s.

Fig. 159 shows a Gellman "Polly" No. 91 adjustable wrench with a spring-loaded jaw held in place by serrated teeth.

The shank has forged markings "Gellman Manufacturing Company" and "Rock Island, Ill. U.S.A." on the front, with the "Polly" name in script.

The opposite side has forged markings "Drop Forged Steel" and "9 In. No. 91", with a "Patented Apr. 17, 1923" patent notice.

The overall length is 9.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The patent date corresponds to patent 1,451,906, filed by I.C. Gellman in 1921.

Information sent by a reader indicates that other (probably earlier) versions of this model were marked "Gellman Wrench Corp." instead of Gellman Manufacturing.


Gellman "Polly" No. 121 12 Inch Adjustable Wrench

[Gellman Polly No. 121 Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 160. Gellman "Polly" No. 121 Adjustable Wrench, with Inset for Back Side Detail, ca. Mid 1920s.

Fig. 160 shows a larger example of the "Polly" wrench, a Gellman "Polly" No. 121 adjustable wrench. The shank has forged markings "Gellman Manufacturing Company" and "Rock Island, Ill. U.S.A." on the front, with the "Polly" name in script.

The back side has forged markings "Drop Forged Steel" and "12 In. No. 121", with a "Patented Apr. 17, 1923" patent notice.

The overall length is 11.7 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The patent date corresponds to patent 1,451,906, filed by I.C. Gellman in 1921.


Gendron Iron Wheel Company

The Gendron Iron Wheel Company was a maker of bicycles and tools operating in Toledo, Ohio. The company was founded in 1880 by Peter Gendron, an inventor with more than ten patents issued for wire wheels, tires, and related items.


Tool Identification

Gendron tools were sometimes stamped only with a G-Diamond logo, as shown in the figure below.


G-Diamond Logo

[G-Diamond Logo]
Fig. 161. G-Diamond Logo.

Fig. 161 shows the G-Diamond logo, as stamped on the Gendron 5 Inch Bicycle Wrench shown below.


Gendron 5 Inch Bicycle Wrench

[Gendron 5 Inch Bicycle Wrench]
Fig. 162. Gendron 5 Inch Bicycle Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 162 shows a Gendron 5 inch bicycle wrench, stamped with a "G" in a diamond logo, with "Pat'd June 7th, 1892" around the outline.

The overall length is 4.6 inches closed, and the maximum opening is 1.3 inches. The finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent 476,629, filed by P. Gendron in 1892.


Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company

The Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company was a maker of adjustable wrenches active from 1875 through at least the 1920s.

The company was initially founded as a reorganization of the T.B. Walton Wrench Company of Cleveland, Ohio, which in 1874 had built a new factory in Girard, Pennsylvania.

[May, 1874 Notice for T.B Walton Wrench Company]
Fig. 163. May, 1874 Notice for T.B. Walton Wrench Company.

The scan in Fig. 163 shows a notice of a factory being built in Girard, Pennsylvania by the T.B. Walton Wrench Company, as published on page 9 of the May 7, 1874 issue of The Iron Age.

By October of 1874 the Walton company had relocated to Girard, Pennsylvania and the new factory was up and running, according to a report in The Iron Age.

[October, 1874 Notice for Walton Wrench Company]
Fig. 164. October, 1874 Notice for Walton Wrench Company.

The scan in Fig. 164 shows a small notice for the Walton Wrench factory, as published on page 9 of the October 22, 1874 issue of The Iron Age.

The text notes the factory as employing 55 workers with a capacity as 600 wrenches per day.

The dimensions are stated as 100 by 180 feet, which is substantially larger than the initial report in May. The factory equipment included 25 milling machines.

One of the tools made by the Walton factory was an adjustable wrench based on the 1871 Phillips patent 117,679.


New Ownership

After a promising start, the Walton Wrench operations in Girard failed in 1875, and the company was purchased at auction by C.F. Rockwell, W.C. Culbertson, and R.S. Battles. The new owners formed a partnership and operated as the Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company. (This information on the formation of the Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company was found in a 1909 History of Erie County Pennsylvania by John Miller.)

The early products made by the Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company included screw-adjusting wrenches based on the 1875 Battles patent 165,655 and the 1875 Campfield patent 166,587.

In May of 1888 the Girard Wrench factory was destroyed by fire and had to be rebuilt.

By the early 1890s Girard was offering two main product lines, its "Agricultural" and "Standard" wrenches.

[1891 Catalog Listing for Girard Wrenches]
Fig. 165. 1891 Catalog Listing for Girard Wrenches.

Fig. 165 shows a catalog listing for Girard "Agricultural" and "Standard" wrenches, as published on page 128 [External Link] of the 1891 catalog from Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Company.

The two wrenches were similar in appearance and price.

[1893 Ad for Girard Wrench]
Fig. 166. 1893 Ad for Girard Wrench. [External Link]

Fig. 166 shows an ad for the Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company, as published in the 1893 Marvel Cyclopedia. (This section of the publication doesn't have page numbers.)

Note that the text at the bottom mentions that the wrenches were being offered by Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Company, a major retailer as well as manufacturer of tools.


Bicycle Wrenches

By around 1890 the company had added bicycle wrenches to their product line.

[1896 Ad for Girard Bicycle Wrench]
Fig. 167. 1896 Ad for Girard Bicycle Wrench.

Fig. 167 shows an 1896 ad for a Girard bicyle wrench, as published on page 100 of the March 13, 1896 issue of Wheel and Cycling Trade Review.

On July 17, 1902 the Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company was incorporated with $100,000 in capital.

By the early 1900s Girard was offering a "Girard Special" line of all-steel wrenches.

Later Operations

Girard Wrench appears to have continued operations at least in the late 1920s, based on references in trade publications.


Patents

Girard Wrench Mfg.: Issued and Licensed Patents
Patent No.InventorFiledIssuedNotes and Examples
117,679 G.B. Phillips08/01/187108/01/1871 Improvement in Wrenches
Used by Walton Wrench Mfg.
165,655 R.S. Battles03/06/187507/20/1875 Construction of Screw Wrenches
166,587 M.E. Campfield04/13/187508/10/1875 Improvement in Screw Wrenches
260,771 C.H. Miller12/21/188107/11/1882 Monkey Wrench

Trademarks

Girard Wrench is known to have registered a number of trademarks. The earliest known trademark was for the text "STANDARD GIRARD", which was issued as #5,880 on April 16, 1878.

In 1923 the company filed a trademark application for a logo with "GIRARD" in a diamond outline, and the trademark was issued as #188,484 on August 26, 1924.

Girard Wrench Mfg.: Registered Trademarks
Text Mark or Logo Reg. No. First Use Date Filed Date Issued Notes
STANDARD GIRARD 5,880   04/08/1878 04/16/1878 For wrenches.
Filed by Girard Wrench Manufacturing Company, Girard, PA.
GIRARD STANDARD logo 188,480 02/09/192303/31/1923 08/26/1924 Text "GIRARD STANDARD" in a diamond.
For wrenches.
Serial 178,384. Published June 17, 1924.
GIRARD Diamond logo 188,484 01/25/192302/26/1923 08/26/1924 Text "GIRARD" in a diamond.
For wrenches.
Serial 176,616. Published June 17, 1924.
Girard Wrench Mfg. logo 202,123 03/01/191701/22/1923 08/18/1925 Text "Girard Wrench Mfg." in a circle logo.
For wrenches.
Serial 174,897. Published June 2, 1925.

Girard "Special" 10 Inch Monkey Wrench

[Girard Special 10 Inch Monkey Wrench]
Fig. 168. Girard "Special" 10 Inch Monkey Wrench, with Inset for Marking Detail.

Fig. 168 shows a Girard "Special" all-steel 10 inch monkey wrench, stamped with the Girard logo on the fixed jaw.

The overall length is 9.8 inches, and the maximum opening is 2.0 inches. The finish is black paint.


Goodell-Pratt Manufacturing Company

Goodell-Pratt Manufacturing operated in Greenfield, Massachusetts as the maker of a wide variety of tools and hardware products.

Although better known as a maker of tools for the carpentry and building trades, by 1918 Goodell-Pratt was producing tools for automobile service as well.

[1918 Ad for Goodell-Pratt Socket Wrenches]
Fig. 169. 1918 Advertisement for Goodell-Pratt Socket Wrenches. [External Link]

Fig. 169 shows an ad for fixed socket wrenches, as published on page 85 of the September 25, 1918 issue of Motor Age.

The illustration shows the company's No. 378 set of fixed socket wrenches, with two wrenches providing openings of 5/8, 11/16, 3/4, and 7/8.

[1920 Ad for Goodell-Pratt Socket Wrench Set]
Fig. 170. 1920 Advertisement for Goodell-Pratt Socket Wrench Set.

By 1920 the company was producing a ratchet wrench with interchangeable sockets.

The scan in Fig. 170 shows an advertisement illustrating the company's No. 589 Socket Wrench Set, as published on page 112 [External Link] of the June 3, 1920 issue of Motor Age. The set consisted of a ratchet handle, an extension, and nine hexagonal sockets from 1/2 to 1 inch.

The text describes the ratchet handle as having a 3/4 hexagonal socket, implying that the eight additional sockets must have had a non-standard 3/4 hexagonal male drive stud. This was the same drive arrangement used by the "Billmont" socket sets produced by the Edgar C. Guthard Company.


Goodell-Pratt 11/16 Offset Socket Wrench

[Goodell-Pratt 11/16 Offset Socket Wrench]
Fig. 171. Goodell-Pratt 11/16 Offset Socket Wrench, with Insets for Construction and Marking Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 171 shows a Goodell-Pratt 11/16 offset socket wrench, stamped with "Goodell Pratt Co." and "Greenfield, Mass. U.S.A." on the socket.

The overall length is 10.7 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

This wrench has a distinctive appearance due to the use of a malleable cast socket with a 90 degree offset.


Greene, Tweed & Company

Greene, Tweed & Company was a hardware distributor and tool manufacturer operating in New York City.

The exact date of the company's founding is not yet known, but our earliest reference to the company is from a notice for "Blake's Patent Belt Studs" published on page 267 [External Link] of the October 30, 1867 issue of American Artisan.

[1883 Advertisement for Greene, Tweed & Co.]
Fig. 172A. 1883 Ad for Greene, Tweed & Company. [External Link]

Fig. 172A shows an ad for Greene, Tweed & Company, as published on page XXV of the 1883 Farley's Directory of Metal Workers.

In 1889 the company registered trademark #17,054 for machinery packing.


The "Favorite" Ratchet Wrench

[1892 Notice for Favorite Reversible Ratchet Wrench]
Fig. 172B. 1892 Notice for Favorite Reversible Ratchet Wrench. [External Link]

One of the company's best-known products was a heavy-duty reversible ratchet with interchangeable sockets, marketed by Green Tweed as the "Favorite" wrench. This wrench was advertised extensively beginning in the 1890s.

Fig. 172B shows a notice for the "Favorite" ratchet wrench, as published on page 699 of the October 13, 1892 issue of The Iron Age.

[1906 Advertisement for Favorite Reversible Ratchet Wrench]
Fig. 173. 1906 Ad for Favorite Reversible Ratchet Wrench. [External Link]

Fig. 173 shows an ad for the Favorite ratchet wrench, as published on page 91 of the August, 1906 issue of Machinery.


Favorite No. A Ratchet Socket Wrench

[Favorite No. A Ratchet Socket Wrench]
Fig. 174. Favorite No. A Ratchet Socket Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Back Side Detail.

Fig. 174 shows a Favorite No. A ratchet socket wrench, marked with "No. A" and "Favorite Reversible Ratchet Wrench" forged into the handle, with "Patented" and "Greene, Tweed & Co. Mnfrs., N.Y." forged into the back side.

The overall length is 15.0 inches.

The patent notice corresponds to patent 461,603, issued to C.T. Burr and G.B. Hankins on October 20, 1891.

The wrench is shown fitted with dual sockets marked with U.S.S. sizes 5/8 and 3/4, corresponding to nominal openings 1-1/16 and 1-1/4 respectively. The socket sizes can be changed by removing the retaining screw and inserting a new socket unit.


Greenfield Tap & Die Corporation (GTD)

The Greenfield Tap & Die Corporation is a maker of taps, dies, pipe wrenches, and other tools operating in Greenfield, Massachusetts. The company was established on April 2, 1912 by the merger of Wiley & Russell Manufacturing with the Wells Brothers Company.


GTD "Little Giant" 8 Inch Offset Pipe Wrench

[GTD Little Giant 8 Inch Offset Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 175. GTD "Little Giant" 8 Inch Offset Pipe Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Back Side Detail, ca. 1913+.

Fig. 175 shows a GTD "Little Giant" 8 inch offset pipe wrench, marked with "Greenfield, Mass." and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Little Giant" and "Pat. Feb. 4 1913" forged into the back side.

The overall length is 8.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent 1,052,313, filed by A.B. Carll in 1912.


H-P Tool Manufacturing Corporation

The H-P Tool Manufacturing Corporation was a maker of chisels, punches, wrenches, and other tools, operating in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and active during the latter part of the 20th century. The company sold products under the H-P and "Blue Line" brands, the latter being a registered trademark issued in 1961.


Tool Identification


HP-Shield Logo

[HP-Shield Logo]
Fig. 176. HP-Shield Logo.

Fig. 176 shows the HP-Shield logo, as found stamped on a tool.


H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-22 11/16 Combination Wrench

[H-P Tool Blue Line CW-22 11/16 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 177. H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-22 11/16 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 177 shows an H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-22 11/16 combination wrench, stamped with "Blue Line" and the H-P Shield logo on the shank.

The overall length is 8.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-24 3/4 Combination Wrench

[H-P Tool Blue Line CW-24 3/4 Combination Wrench]
Fig. 178. H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-24 3/4 Combination Wrench, with Inset for Side View.

Fig. 178 shows an H-P Tool "Blue Line" CW-24 3/4 combination wrench, stamped with "Blue Line" and the H-P Shield logo on the shank.

The overall length is 9.3 inches, and the finish is chrome plating.


H-P Tool Four-Way Offset Screwdriver

[H-P Tool Four-Way Offset Screwdriver]
Fig. 179. H-P Tool Four-Way Offset Screwdriver.

Fig. 179 shows an H-P Tool four-way offset screwdriver, stamped "H-P Tool Corp." on the center face.

The overall length is 5.0 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


H & E Wrench Company

The H & E Wrench Company (sometimes written as HandE) operated in New Bedford, Massachusetts as a maker of slide-adjusting nut and pipe wrenches. The company was founded in the early 1920s by G.E. Hemphill and E.J. Evans, two inventors who provided the patents for the wrenches as well as the "H" and "E" for the name.

The company's slide-adjusting nut wrench was described by patent 1,391,179, filed by Evans and Hemphill in 1920 and issued on September 20, 1921. This patent was assigned to the Universal Tool Company, a Utah corporation and presumably an earlier venture by the inventors.

A slide-adjusting pipe wrench operating on similar principles is described by patent 1,449,386, filed by Evans and Hemphill in 1922 and issued on March 27, 1923.


H & E Wrench "HandE" 10 Inch Slide-Adjusting Nut Wrench

[H & E Wrench 10 Inch Slide-Adjusting Nut Wrench]
Fig. 180. H & E Wrench 10 Inch Slide-Adjusting Nut Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 180 shows an H & E "HandE" 10 inch slide-adjusting nut wrench, stamped "HandE Wrench Co." and "New Bedford, Mass." on the fixed jaw, with a "Pat'd Sept. 20, 1921" patent date at the top (see middle inset).

The overall length is 10.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent 1,391,179, filed by Evans and Hemphill in 1920 and issued on that date.


Handee Wrench Manufacturing Company

The Handee Wrench Manufacturing Company operated in Mansfield, Ohio during the mid to late 1920s. The company's main product was an eight-way multi-socket wrench described by patent 1,571,148, filed by John Sisolak in 1924 and issued in 1926.


Handee Wrench 7 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench

[Handee Wrench 7 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench]
Fig. 181. Handee Wrench 7 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Back Side Detail, ca. Mid 1920s.

Fig. 181 shows a Handee Wrench 8-way multi-socket wrench in the 7 inch nominal size, marked with "The Handee" forged into the shank, with "Mansfield Ohio" forged into the back side.

The overall length is 7.1 inches, and the finish is black paint.

The socket sizes are 11/16, 3/4, 13/16, and 7/8 on the left cluster, with 7/16, 1/2, 9/16, and 5/8 on the right cluster.

Although not marked with a patent notice, this tool is covered by patent 1,571,148, issued to J. Sisolak in 1926.


Handee Wrench 8 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench

[Handee Wrench 8 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench]
Fig. 182. Handee Wrench 8 Inch 8-Way Multi-Socket Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Back Side Detail, ca. 1924-1926.

Fig. 182 shows a Handee Wrench 8-way multi-socket wrench in the 8 inch nominal size, marked with "The Handee" and "Pat Appld" forged into the shank, with "Mansfield Ohio" forged into the back side.

The overall length is 7.8 inches, and the finish is black paint.

The (measured) socket sizes are 7/16, 1/2, 9/16, and 5/8 on the left cluster, with 3/4, 7/8, 15/16, and 1 inch on the right cluster.

The patent pending status refers to patent 1,571,148, filed by J. Sisolak in 1924 and issued in 1926.


Hartford Special Machinery Company

The Hartford Special Machinery Company operated in Hartford, Connecticut and is currently known only for the unusual pliers in the next figure.


Hartford Special Machinery Ring-Forming Pliers

[Hartford Special Machinery Ring-Forming Pliers]
Fig. 183. Hartford Special Machinery Ring-Forming Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail.

Fig. 183 shows a pair of Hartford Special Machinery patented ring-forming pliers, stamped "The Hartford Special Machinery Co" and "Hartford, Conn. U.S.A." on the underside of one handle. The other handle is stamped with a "Pat. No. 1067876 Hartford, CT." patent notice (see middle inset).

The overall length is 6.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The lower left inset shows a closeup of one jaw, illustrating the round groove used to form a wire ring. The tip of the jaw appears to have been chipped off.

The patent notice refers to the patent 1,067,876, issued to J. Merritt in 1913.


Hawkeye Wrench Company

The Hawkeye Wrench Company was a tool maker operating in Marshalltown, Iowa during the early 20th century. The company is best known for a line of alligator wrenches with thread-cutting dies in the center.

The Hawkeye alligator wrenches were based on the Benesh 1903 patent 720,554, filed by C. Benesh in 1902.

By 1904 the wrenches were in production and were being advertised, as the next figure indicates.

[1904 Ad for Hawkeye Wrench]
Fig. 184. 1904 Ad for Hawkeye Wrench.

Fig. 184 shows an ad for the Hawkeye wrench, as published on page 192 of the September 1, 1904 issue of The Iron Age.

[1905 Ad for Hawkeye Wrench]
Fig. 185. 1905 Ad for Hawkeye Wrench.

Fig. 185 shows another ad for the Hawkeye wrench, as published on page 10 of the July 1, 1905 issue of Domestic Engineering.


Hawkeye Wrench "Crocodile" 8 Inch Alligator Wrench with Thread-Cutting Dies

[Hawkeye Wrench Crocodile 8 Inch Alligator Wrench]
Fig. 186. Hawkeye Wrench "Crocodile" 8 Inch Alligator Wrench.

Fig. 186 shows a Hawkeye Wrench "Crocodile" 8 inch alligator wrench, stamped "Hawkeye Wrench Co." and "Marshalltown, IA." on one end, with "Crocodile" and "Made in U.S.A." on the other end.

The overall length is 8.4 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The center of the wrench is equipped with three thread-cutting dies, marked for size and pitch 5/16-18, 1/2-13, and 3/8-16.

One end of the wrench is equipped with a screwdriver tip, the defining feature for the "Crocodile" models.


Henry & Allen Company

The Henry & Allen Company was founded in 1898 as a maker of agricultural implements and operated in Auburn, New York.

[1898 Notice of Incorporation for Henry & Allen]
Fig. 187. 1898 Notice of Incorporation for Henry & Allen. [External Link]

Fig. 187 shows a notice of incorporation for Henry & Allen, as published on page 20 of the September 15, 1898 issue of The Farm Implement News.

The text notes the company capital as $25,000, and the directors are listed as William J. and Mary E. Henry along with Gorton W. and Ada R. Allen.

The company's early products included mower and reaper knives, and in later years the company produced tools such as tin snips and pipe wrenches.

[1923 Ad for Henry & Allen Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 188. 1923 Ad for Henry & Allen Pipe Wrench.

The scan in Fig. 188 shows an ad for a Henry & Allen Stillson-pattern pipe wrench, as published on page 82 [External Link] of the September 29, 1923 issue of Domestic Engineering.


Trademarks

In 1923 Henry & Allen filed a trademark application for "HA" in a stylized (slanted) font, and the company received trademark #176,557 on November 27, 1923.


Henry & Allen 14 Inch Stillson-Pattern Pipe Wrench

[Henry & Allen 14 Inch Stillson-Pattern Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 189. Henry & Allen 14 Inch Stillson-Pattern Pipe Wrench, with Insets for Edge View and Marking Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 189 shows a Henry & Allen 14 inch Stillson-pattern pipe wrench, marked with "Stillson Wrench Mfd By Henry & Allen" and "Auburn, NY U.S.A." stamped on the handle, and with the company's "HA" trademark forged into the movable jaw.

The overall length is 12.0 inches closed and 14.2 inches fully extended.

The finish is plain steel.


Hi-Test Premier Products, Inc.

Hi-Test Premier Products was an importer and mail-order retailer of tools and other goods operating in New York City. Online references report the company address as 361 Broadway in New York City.

The company was in business by the late 1950s based on copyright filings for its catalogs, and operations are believed to have continued into the 1970s.

[1957 Notice of Copyright]
Fig. 190. 1957 Notice of Copyright. [External Link]

Fig. 190 shows a notice of a copyright application for catalog No. 57, as published on page 1181 of the 1957 Catalog of Copyright Entries.

As an importer the company arranged for contract production of tools marked with its "Hi-Test" brand, and is believed to have sourced tools primarily from Japanese manufacturers, although products from Poland and Spain have been reported as well.

Tools known to have been offered include adjustable wrenches, open-end wrenches, socket sets, pliers, and vises.

[1959 Notice of FTC Action]
Fig. 191. 1959 Notice of FTC Action. [External Link]

Fig. 191 shows a notice of a "cease and desist" enforcement action by the FTC regarding Dutch masonry drills, as published on page 2140 of the 1959 Federal Trade Commission Decisions.

From this notice we can add masonry drills to the list of known products, and the Netherlands as a known country of origin.

Currently we don't have much information on Hi-Test beyond what is noted above. If any of our readers have a copy of any of the company's catalogs, please let us know via email.


Trademarks

Hi-Test Premier Products registered "PRO-FORGE" as trademark #831,768 on July 11, 1967 for use with long-nose pliers.


Hi-Test 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench

[Hi-Test 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 192. Hi-Test 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Inset for Back Side.

Fig. 192 shows a Hi-Test 8 inch adjustable wrench, marked with "Hi-Test" and "Chrome Molybdenum" forged into the front, with "Fully Drop-Forged" and "Highest J.I.S. Indust. Stand." plus the JIS-Circle logo forged into the back side.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is chrome plating with polished faces.

The Japanese maker of this wrench has been identified as the Yamaco Company.


Hibbard Spencer Bartlett & Company

Hibbard Spencer Bartlett (sometimes abbreviated H.S.B.) was a major wholesaler and retailer of hardware goods from the mid 19th century onward. The company sold tools and other hardware under both the manufacturer's brands and under several of their own brands, including the True Value line of hardware still known today.

One of the company's well-known brands from the early 20th century was called "Revonoc" or "Rev-O-Noc", a reversed form of the name Conover. In 1906 the company registered "Rev-O-Noc" as trademark #54,059.

This brand was probably derived from the name of Charles Hopkins Conover, a long-time employee of the company who began in 1871 as a buyer and in 1914 became the company's president. (Background information on Conover was found in a 1914 Annual Report published by the Chicago Historical Society.)

Trademarks

Hibbard Spencer Bartlett: Registered Trademarks
Text Mark or Logo Reg. No. First Use Date Filed Date Issued Notes
Rev-O-Noc 54,059  10/13/1905 06/19/1906 Used for tile setters, hammers, awls, screwdrivers.
Hibbard 203,991 01/15/192209/10/1923 09/29/1925 "Hibbard" stylized.
Used for long list of goods.
Serial 185,584. Published September 29, 1925.
Hibbard's
True Value
297,084 03/16/192204/09/1932 08/30/1932 "Hibbard's True Value" in script font.
Bit braces, planes, pliers, wrenches, other tools.
Serial 325,949. Published June 14, 1932.

Revonoc (H.S.B.) 10 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers

[Revonoc (H.S.B.) 10 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers]
Fig. 193. Revonoc (H.S.B.) 10 Inch Button's Pattern Pliers, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. Early 1900s.

Fig. 193 shows a pair of early Revonoc 10 inch Button's pattern pliers, stamped with the Revonoc brand and "H.S.B. & Co." near the pivot.

The overall length is 9.9 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


"Hibbard's True Value" 6 Inch Bent Thin-Nose Combination Pliers

[Hibbard's True Value 6 Inch Bent Thin-Nost Combination Pliers]
Fig. 193B. "Hibbard's True Value" 6 Inch Bent Thin-Nose Pliers, with Insets for Back Side, Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1930s.

Fig. 193B shows a pair of Hibbard 6 inch bent thin-nose combination pliers, stamped with "Hibbard's True Value" in a script font near the pivot.

The top inset shows a side view of the pliers, illustrating the dimpled gripping pattern.

The overall length is 6.7 inches. The finish is plain steel with pitting due to rust, but with traces of nickel plating.

The company registered "Hibbard's True Value" as trademark #297,084 on August 30, 1932.


Hinckley-Myers Company

The Hinckley-Myers Company operated in Chicago, Illinois as maker of automobile specialty equipment and tools. Their products included items such as cylinder reboring machines, and their customers were probably automobile dealers and repair shops. Currently we don't have much information on the company, but have found a few references in trade publications from the 1920s and 1930s.

Some later references to the company give a location in Jackson, Michigan, suggesting that the company may have moved, or possibly opened a branch office.


Hinckley-Myers J956 1/2x1/2 Tappet Wrench

[Hinckley-Myers J956 1/2x1/2 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 194. Hinckley-Myers J956 1/2x1/2 Tappet Wrench, with Insets for Back Side and Marking Detail, 1934.

Fig. 194 shows a Hinckley-Myers J956 1/2x1/2 tappet wrench, marked with "J956" and "Tappet Adj." forged into the shank, with "Hinckley-Myers" and "Made in U.S.A." forged into the back side. The shank is also marked with a forged-in code "EZ..." at the right, which closely resembles the format of the Bonney Date Code.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is cadmium plating.

The forged-in code and general construction of this wrench allow us to identify the maker as Bonney Forge & Tool, and an example of the equivalent Bonney model can be seen as the Bonney CV 402 Tappet Wrench. The "Z" year code in the Bonney date code system would indicate production in 1934.


Hinckley-Myers J552-2 9/16x9/16 Tappet Wrench

[Hinckley-Myers J552-2 9/16x9/16 Tappet Wrench]
Fig. 195. Hinckley-Myers J552-2 9/16x9/16 Tappet Wrench, with Inset for Back Side, 1935.

Fig. 195 shows a Hinckley-Myers J552-2 9/16x9/16 tappet wrench, marked with "HM Co" and the model number on the shank, with "Chrome-Vanadium" on the back side. The shank is also marked with a forged-in code "BM..." at the left, which closely resembles the format of the Bonney Date Code.

The overall length is 8.0 inches, and the finish is nickel plating.

The forged-in code and general construction of this wrench allow us to identify the maker as Bonney Forge & Tool, and an example of the equivalent Bonney model can be seen as the Bonney CV 403 Tappet Wrench. The "M" year code in the Bonney date code would indicate production in 1935.


Hoe Corporation

The Hoe Corporation was founded in Poughkeepsie, New York in the mid 1920s, and is known primarily as the maker of a self-adjusting pipe wrench patented by F.P. Robert. The Robert wrench design was originally produced by the Robert Wrench Company of New York City, but the patent rights were later acquired by the Hoe Corporation.


Hoe Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench

[Hoe Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 204. Hoe Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench, with Inset for Back Side Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 204 shows a Hoe self-adjusting pipe wrench, marked with "Hoe Corporation" and "Poughkeepsie, N.Y." forged into the shank, and with "Patented Feb. 21 1922" on the back side.

The overall length is 15.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent date refers to patent 1,407,578, filed by Frederic P. Robert in 1921 and issued in 1922.

A similar but earlier example of this design can be seen as the Robert Wrench Self-Adjusting Pipe Wrench.


Hol-Set Manufacturing Corporation

The Hol-Set Manufacturing Corporation was a maker of socket wrenches operating in Rochester, New York during the 1920s. Its primary product was a hex-drive brace wrench designed so that the sockets could be stored on the wrench shank.

The Hol-Set brace wrench was based on patent 1,662,424, filed in 1922 by J.J. Judge and issued in 1928. We found this patent by accident and immediately recognized the tool from the patent illustration.


Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Drive Brace Socket Wrench Set

The Hol-Set tools were apparently still available in 1930.

[1930 Catalog Listing for Hol-Set Wrenches]
Fig. 205. 1930 Catalog Listing for Hol-Set Wrenches.

The scan in Fig. 205 shows an illustration of the Hol-Set wrench set, as published on page 230 of the 1930 H. Channon catalog No. 101.

The illustration shows the set with six standard sockets, one deep socket, a universal joint, a valve grinder attachment, and a separate Ell-handle.

The set was offered for a $4.50 price. Currently this is our only catalog reference for this tool.

[Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Drive Brace Socket Wrench Set]
Fig. 206. Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Drive Brace Socket Wrench Set, with Inset for Marking Detail, ca. 1922-1928.

Fig. 206 shows a Hol-Set brace socket wrench set, consisting of a 1/2-hex drive brace wrench with four hex sockets stored on the shank, plus a universal joint (not pictured). The circular end piece is stamped "Hol-Set Mfg. Corp." and "Rochester, N.Y." around the outside, with "Pat's Appl'd For" and "Made in U.S.A." near the center (see inset).

The overall length is 20.3 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The wrench set came supplied with a hanging hook visible near the center, a nice convenience feature.

The sockets acquired with the set consist of three standard sockets and one deep socket; however, as might be expected by the extra space on the shank, the original set included more sizes (see below). The sizes in the photograph are, from the left, 5/8, 3/4, 7/8, and 31/32 (deep). The sockets are unmarked, and the finish is plain steel.

The patent applied notation is a reference to patent 1,662,424, filed in 1922 by J.J. Judge and issued in 1928. The pending status suggests production between 1922 and 1928, assuming that the company would have marked the patent number or date once issued.


Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Drive Universal

[Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Drive Universal]
Fig. 207. Hol-Set 1/2-Hex Universal, with Inset for End View, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 207 shows the unmarked 1/2-hex drive universal joint from the Hol-Set brace socket wrench set, accidentally omitted from the group photograph in the previous figure.

The overall length is 1.8 inches, and the finish is plain steel.

The universal is missing the detent ball for its drive stud, as can be seen by the empty hole. This is easy enough to repair, requiring just a ball bearing of the right size and a small spring.


Hudson Forge Company

We added this entry as a place to display tools bearing the "Hudson Forge" marking, but have suspected for some time that the "Hudson Forge Co" was a brand rather than an actual tool company.

This suspicion was recently (2021) confirmed with the discovery of trademark #230,183, which displays the text "Hudson Forge Co" in a circular logo. The trademark was issued to the W.T. Grant Company in 1927.

[1927 Listing for 'Hudson Forge Co' Trademark 230,183]
Fig. 208. 1927 Listing for 'Hudson Forge Co' Trademark 230,183.

Fig. 208 shows the listing for trademark #230,183, as published on page 311 of the July 12, 1927 issue of the Official Gazette. The image shows the text "Hudson Forge Co" along curved arcs.

The trademark was filed by the W.T. Grant Company on May 3, 1927 and issued on July 12, 1927.

The W.T. Grant Company was a department store and mail-order retailer, similar in operation to Sears, Roebuck but on a smaller scale.


Hudson Forge 723 Open-End Wrench

[Hudson Forge 723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench]
Fig. 209. Hudson Forge 723 3/8x7/16 Open-End Wrench, with Inset for Back Side Detail.

Fig. 209 shows a Hudson Forge 723 3/8x7/16 open-end wrench, stamped "Hudson Forge Co." on the shank, with "Made in U.S.A." on the back side.

The overall length is 4.3 inches.


Hudson Forge 94A 5/8x3/4 Tappet or Check-Nut Wrench

[Hudson Forge 94A 5/8x3/4 Check-Nut Wrench]
Fig. 209B. Hudson Forge 94A 5/8x3/4 Check-Nut Wrench, with Inset for Back Side Detail.

Fig. 209B shows a Hudson Forge 94A 5/8x3/4 tappet or check-nut wrench, stamped "Hudson Forge Co." on the shank, with "Made in U.S.A." on the back side.

The overall length is 8.0 inches.


Hudson Forge Slip-Joint Thin-Nose Pliers

[Hudson Forge Slip-Joint Thin-Nose Pliers]
Fig. 209C. Hudson Forge Slip-Joint Thin-Nose Pliers, with Insets for Nose and Handle Detail.

Fig. 209C shows a pair of Hudson Forge thin-nose pliers, stamped "Hudson Forge Co." and "Made in U.S.A." near the pivot.

The overall length is 6.5 inches.

The gripping pattern on these pliers closely resembles the checkered pattern used by the J.P. Danielson Company, which provided contract manufacturing for a number of companies, including Sears, Roebuck. See for example the Fulton Thin-nosed Pliers made by Danielson for the Sears Fulton brand.


George L. Hunt Manufacturing Company

The George L. Hunt Manufacturing Company was incorporated in 1920 in Boscobel, Wisconsin and is known primarily as a maker of gear pullers.

[1920 Notice for George L. Hunt Mfg.]
Fig. 210. 1920 Notice for George L. Hunt Manufacturing Company. [External Link]

Fig. 210 shows a notice of the incorporation of the George L. Hunt Manufacturing Company, as published on page 1245 of the November 4, 1920 issue of The Iron Age.

The capital was noted as $25,000, and the principals were listed as George L. Hunt, H.E.G. Kemp, and Charles A. Blair.

In 1922 George L. Hunt filed a patent application for a gear puller, and the patent was issued as 1,456,735 in 1923, with assignment to the George L. Hunt Manufacturing Company. Gear pullers became an important product for the company.

By 1926 the company was doing well enough to retain an agent to handle foreign sales.

[1926 Notice for George L. Hunt Mfg.]
Fig. 210B. 1926 Notice for George L. Hunt Manufacturing Company. [External Link]

Fig. 210B shows a notice of the appointment of Benjamin Hacker as the manager for foreign sales, as published on page 120 of the June, 1926 edition of American Exporter.

The text notes the company as a maker of gear pullers, mechanics' tools, and garage equipment.


Operations in Davenport, Iowa

In 1927 Hunt established the George L. Hunt Automotive Equipment Company in Davenport, Iowa.


H.D. Hunter & Company

H.D. Hunter & Company was established around 1950 in Los Angeles as the maker of a screw-holding screwdriver, and initially operated at 3499 East 22nd Street in Los Angeles.

Hunter's screw-holding screwdriver was described and illustrated in a notice published on page 286 of the April 20, 1950 issue of Hardware Age, which noted its patented design based on a rotating pin within the shaft. The screwdriver was based on the 1943 Hagness patent 2,324,153, which describes a small rotating blade within a hollow screwdriver shaft. Hunter referred to their product as "Magic-Tip" screwdrivers.

The Hagness patent is similar to other patents for screw-holding screwdrivers, including the 1930 Mueller patent 1,781,470 and the 1939 Pearson patent 2,150,184. The Mueller patent is not known to have been produced, but Pearson patent screw-holding (or screw-starting) screwdrivers are known to have been sold by New Britain Machine and other companies. An example can be seen as the New Britain SS-5 Screw Starter.

"Smitty" Folding Hex Driver Set

By late 1950 the company had begun offering a line of "Smitty" folding hex driver sets based on design patent D156,677, issued in 1949 to Benjamin H. Smith. These sets offered multiple (typically five or six) hex drivers that folded into a handle for storage, similar to a jackknife.

Compared to the alternative of loose Allen wrenches, the Smitty sets offered convenient storage for commonly used sizes, and the metal holder provided a handle for the driver in use. The 1964 Hunter Tools catalog claimed that the Smitty sets were the first to use the idea of folding hex key sets, which had become popular by that time.

[1954 Ad for Hunter]
Fig. 211A. 1954 Ad for Hunter "Smitty" Folding Hex Drivers.

The scan in Fig. 211A shows an ad for Hunter "Smitty" folding hex drivers and other tools, as published on page 345 of the October, 1954 issue of Popular Mechanics.

By this time the company referred to itself as "Hunter Tools" and was located in Whittier, California.

By 1960 the company was located at 9851 Alburtis Avenue in Santa Fe Springs, California.


Hunter Industries

By the mid 1960s the company was operating as the Hunter Tools division of Hunter Industries. A Hunter Tools catalog from 1964 (available for Download from the ITCL) provides a long list of Hunter family members within the company, making it clear that this is the successor to the earlier H.D. Hunter & Company entity. The catalog lists "Magic-Top" and regular screwdrivers, "Smitty" hex driver sets, hex drivers, nut drivers, pliers, wire strippers, and various other tools.

A separate Hunter Tools catalog 1964a-1965a (also available for Download from the ITCL) lists a wide variety of specialized pliers and assembly tools for the electronics industry.

By 1964 "Magic-Tip" screwdrivers were being offered in the Sears Craftsman tool catalog.

Marshall Industries

By the early 1970s Hunter Tools had become a division of Marshall Industries, a major distributor of electronic components based in Marshall, Indiana. We haven't found a precise date for the acquisition by Marshall, but the trade press provides numerous references to Hunter Tools as a division of Marshall from 1971 onward.

As a division of Marshall, Hunter Tools listed its address as 9674 Telstar Avenue in El Monte, California.

Marshall Industries filed a trademark application for "Hunter Tools" in 1974.

Later Operations

In 1979 Hunter Tools was acquired by K-D Tools, a well-known maker of automotive specialty tools. By the late 1980s K-D had been acquired by EASCO, and EASCO continued to use the Hunter brand.

EASCO was later swept into the Danaher conglomerate and ultimately bundled into the Apex Tool Group.

Trademarks

On October 7, 1974 Marshall Industries filed a trademark application for "Hunter Tools" in a design with a stylized hand, with the first use date given as May of 1974. The application was published with serial #33,861 on November 9, 1976, and the applicable tools were listed as pliers, screwdrivers, hammers, socket wrenches, knives, and scissors. The trademark was issued as #1,057,411 on February 1, 1977.

Selected Tools

Smitty P-5 Folding Hex Driver Set

[1964 Catalog Listing for Smitty Folding Hex Drivers]
Fig. 211B. 1964 Catalog Listing for "Smitty" Folding Hex Drivers.

The scan in Fig. 211B shows a catalog listing for "Smitty" folding hex drivers, as published on page 8 of the 1964 Hunter Tools catalog. (The 1964 Hunter Tools catalog is available for Download from the ITCL.)

The text box in the upper right corner claims that the "Smitty" folding driver sets were the originator of this type of tool, which later became popular and were widely copied by other tool companies. In later years folding key sets provided spline and Torx drivers as well as hex drivers.

[Smitty P-5 Folding Hex Driver Set]
Fig. 211C. Smitty P-5 Folding Hex Driver Set, with Insets for Top and Bottom View, ca. Early 1950s.

Fig. 211C shows a "Smitty" P-5 folding hex driver set with five drivers, stamped with "H.D. Hunter & Co." and "Los Angeles 23, Cal." plus "Made in U.S.A." on the bottom.

The driver sizes are not marked, but based on a catalog listing are 3/32, 1/8, 5/32, 3/16, and 7/32.

The set is also marked with a patent number, a reference to design patent D156,677, issued to Benjamin H. Smith in 1949.

The Los Angeles marking suggests that this example was produced in the early 1950s, before the move to Whittier.


Imperial Tool Company

The Imperial Tool Company was founded in Bloomington, Illinois in 1915 as the maker of an "Any Angle" adjustable wrench and other tools.

[1915 Notice for Imperial Tool Company]
Fig. 212. 1915 Notice for Imperial Tool Company. [External Link]

Fig. 212 shows a notice of the founding of Imperial Tool, as published on page 24 of the March 6, 1915 issue of American Artisan and Hardware Record.

The text notes the founders as A.C. Eddy, C.C. Gilliland, and J.E. Ijams.


Bovee Patent Wrenches

In 1916 Ransom Y. Bovee was granted patent 1,205,149 for an adjustable wrench with a novel handle arrangement that allowed the handle to be set at different angles. The patent document notes an assignment to the Imperial Tool Company of Bloomington, Illinois, and based on published references, the initial production of the "Any Angle" wrench was by Imperial Tool.

[1915 Notice for Imperial Tool Company Wrenches]
Fig. 213. 1915 Notice for Imperial Tool Company Wrenches. [External Link]

Fig. 213 shows a notice for three wrenches produced by the Imperial Tool Company, as published on page 995 of the May 6, 1915 issue of The Iron Age.

The middle illustration shows the "Any Angle" wrench.

In addition to the "Any Angle" patent, Ransom Bovee also received patent 1,125,946 for a pipe wrench, and patent 1,240,171 for another pipe wrench design. This second pipe wrench patent resembles the third wrench in the illustration.

[1918 Notice for Imperial Any Angle Wrench]
Fig. 214. 1918 Notice for Imperial "Any Angle" Wrench. [External Link]

Fig. 214 shows a notice for the Imperial "Any Angle" wrench, as published on page 55 of the March, 1918 issue of Iron Tradesman.

The illustration shows the ability of the wrench head to be set at different angles.

The text notes an apparent sales agent in New York City.

[1918 Notice for Riflaw Wrench & Tool]
Fig. 215. 1918 Notice for Riflaw Wrench & Tool. [External Link]

Fig. 215 shows a notice of the formation of Riflaw Wrench & Tool, as published on page 1368 of the November 28, 1918 issue of The Iron Age. The text notes that the company had acquired the patent rights to a "hand wrench" from Ransom Y. Bovee, and this may be a reference to the "Any Angle" wrench. (However, Bovee also had other wrench patents.)


The Automatic Transmission Company

By 1921 the production of the "Any Angle" wrench had apparently shifted to the Automatic Transmission Company of Lima, Ohio.

[1921 Notice for Automatic Transmission Company]
Fig. 216. 1921 Notice for Automatic Transmission Company. [External Link]

Fig. 216 shows a listing for the "Any Angle" wrench by the Automatic Transmission Company of Lima, Ohio, as published on page 459 of the 1921 Engineering Directory.

The next figure shows an example of the "Any Angle" wrench produced by the Automatic Transmission Company.


"Any Angle" Bovee Patent 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench

[Any Angle Bovee Patent 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 217. "Any Angle" Bovee Patent 8 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Back Side Detail, ca. 1920s.

Fig. 217 shows an "Any Angle" 8 inch adjustable wrench of the Bovee patented design, marked with "Any Angle Wrench" and "Lima O. U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Drop Forged Steel" forged into the back side. The shank is also marked with a "Patent Nov. 1916" patent notice.

The overall length is 8.5 inches, and the finish is plain steel with traces of black paint.

The patent date refers to patent 1,205,149, filed by R.Y. Bovee in 1913 and issued on November 21, 1916.

This example of the "Any Angle" wrench is not marked with a company name. However, the forged-in reference to Lima, Ohio indicates that this example was produced by the Automatic Transmission Company of that city.


Irland Pipe Wrench Company

The Irland Pipe Wrench Company was a maker of pipe wrenches operating in Boston, Massachusetts during the early 1900s.

[Irland 11 Inch Automatic Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 218. 1906 Notice for Irland Pipe Wrench. [External Link]

The notice in Fig. 218 shows a notice illustrating the operation of the wrench, was published on page 150 of the July 1, 1906 issue of the Cycle and Automobile Trade Journal.

The text gives the company address as 15 Court Street in Boston.

The company's products were based on patents issued to D.H. Irland, beginning with patent 732,858 on July 7, 1903.


Irland 11 Inch Automatic Pipe Wrench

[Irland 11 Inch Automatic Pipe Wrench]
Fig. 219. Irland 11 Inch Automatic Pipe Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Marking Detail, ca. 1905-1915.

Fig. 219 shows an Irland 11 inch pipe wrench, stamped with "Irland Pipe Wrench Co." and "Boston, Mass. U.S.A." on the side.

The wrench is also marked with a patent notice "Pat. July 7 - Sept. 22 1903 ??? 1905", but the text is only partially readable due to extensive pitting.

The overall length is 11.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel, with pitting due to rust.

The first date ("July 7 1903") refers to patent 732,858, filed by D.H. Irland in 1902 and issued on that date.

The second date ("Sept. 22 1903") refers to patent 739,316, filed by D.H. Irland in 1903 and issued in later that year.

The third patent date is not readable, but was found by a search to be patent 800,850. This patent was filed by the estate of D.H. Irland in 1905 and issued on October 3, 1905, with assignment to the Irland Pipe Wrench Company.

The Irland patents describe progressive refinements to a distinctive pipe wrench design, which uses a lever handle to control the spring-loaded upper jaw. When the lever is depressed, the jaw opens to allow a pipe to be grasped, after which the jaw grips the pipe by cam action.


W.A. Ives Manufacturing Company

The W.A. Ives Manufacturing Company was founded in 1830 as a maker of auger bits and operated in Wallingford, Connecticut. The company was incorporated in 1889.

Succession and A Name Change

[1904 Notice for Hamden Manufacturing]
Fig. 220A. 1904 Notice for Hamden Manufacturing. [External Link]

By around 1904 the Ives company had been acquired by the Hamden Manufacturing Company of Hamden, Connecticut.

Fig. 220A shows a notice announcing price discounts on the Ives line of auger bits, as published on page 42 of the October 13, 1904 issue of The Iron Age.

The text identifies Hamden Manufacturing as the successor to W.A. Ives & Company.

However, the Hamden company apparently realized that the name recognition of the earlier company was much better, and by 1906 Hamden Manufacturing had changed its name to the W.A. Ives Manufacturing Company.


The "Mephisto" Trademark

On January 27, 1909 Ives filed a trademark application for "Mephisto" in a distinctive font, and the application was published as serial #40,156 on March 30, 1909. The trademark was registered as #73,964 on June 1, 1909.


Kilborn & Bishop Company

The Kilborn & Bishop Company was established in 1896 in New Haven, Connecticut as a merchant drop forger and maker of tools. An 1897 publication of the State of Connecticut reported the company's incorporation date as April 18, 1896. The officers were G.A Kilborn, president and E.R. Bishop, secretary and treasurer.

[1896 Notice for Kilborn & Bishop]
Fig. 221A. 1896 Notice for Kilborn & Bishop. [External Link]

Fig. 221A shows a notice announcing the incorporation of Kilborn & Bishop with $15,000 in capital, as published on page 19 of the April 30, 1896 issue of Stoves and Hardware Reporter.

[1896 Notice for Kilborn & Bishop]
Fig. 221. 1896 Notice for Kilborn & Bishop. [External Link]

Fig. 221 shows a notice for Kilborn & Bishp, as published on page 126 of the July 16, 1896 issue of The Iron Age.

The text notes that the company had acquired the drop forging operations of the Miner & Peck Mfg. Company, and that they would be specializing in forgings for bicycles.

Soon after their founding the company was ready to expand.

[1899 Notice for Kilborn & Bishop]
Fig. 222. 1899 Notice for Kilborn & Bishop. [External Link]

Fig. 222 shows a notice of the purchase of land adjacent to their existing location, as published on page 44 of the April 25, 1899 issue of Hardware.

The company's location was noted as the corner of Lloyd and River streets.

In 1905 Kilborn & Bishop published their catalog No. 4, which was announced on page 32 of the July 27, 1905 issue of The Iron Trade Review. The catalog offered tools such as pliers, sawsets, and box openers, and also mentions the ability to produce custom drop forgings.

A 1908 directory listed their product line as forged tools such as wrenches, pliers, and chisels, as well as custom forgings.

Later Operations

The company remained in business at least into the 1930s, but currently we don't have much information on their later activities.


Trademarks

The company received trademark #74,378 for saw-sets on July 6, 1909. The application was filed on January 25, 1909 with serial 40,119, and published on May 4, 1909.

Kilborn & Bishop: Registered Trademarks
Text Mark or Logo Reg. No. First Use Date Filed Date Issued Notes
WHITING'S 74,378 01/10/189901/25/1909 07/06/1909 Used for saw-sets, notes "used ten years".
Serial 40,119. Published May 4, 1909.
GREEN LINE 219,858 06/01/192607/07/1926 10/26/1926 Used for tile setters, hammers, awls, screwdrivers.
Serial 234,270. Published August 17, 1926.

Kilborn & Bishop 601 3/8x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench

[Kilborn & Bishop 601 3/8x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench]
Fig. 223. Kilborn & Bishop 601 3/8x1/2 S-Shaped Wrench, with Inset for Back Side Detail.

Fig. 223 shows a Kilborn & Bishop 601 3/8x1/2 S-shaped open-end wrench, marked with "Drop Forged" and the K&B logo forged into the shank, with the model number forged into the back side.

The overall length is 6.2 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


Kilborn & Bishop 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench

[Kilborn & Bishop 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench]
Fig. 224. Kilborn & Bishop 4 Inch Adjustable Wrench, with Insets for Side View and Back Side Detail.

Fig. 224 shows a Kilborn & Bishop 4 inch adjustable wrench, marked with "K & B Co." and "New Haven CT. U.S.A." forged into the shank, with "Adjustable" and "22 1/2" forged into the back side.

The overall length is 4.1 inches, and the finish is plain steel.


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